Marketing can be defined as the set of actions aimed at studying and influencing the needs and behaviors of consumers and continuously making the adaptations of production and the commercial apparatus according to needs and behaviors previously identified.
The English expression “advocacy marketing” refers to the use of different ambassadors playing a role of promoters or representation of a brand or organization.
Advocacy marketing therefore concerns in particular:
– client ambassadors
– brand ambassadors (broader vision than the client ambassador)
– employee ambassadors
The potential of advocacy marketing has notably developed with the rise of the Internet, which makes it easier for brands to get in touch with these potential promoters and to run their ambassador programs. This rise in digital media has also developed the communication capacities and the potential audience of ambassadors.
Marketing activation is particularly complex to define because the term is the subject of disparate uses by agencies and advertisers.
The notion of marketing activation however generally refers to a set of operational actions making it possible to engage consumers through actions oriented towards sales or customer relations.
The purpose of marketing activation is to exploit the image, identity and notoriety of a brand in front of the consumer. It is generally considered that media advertising communication is not part of marketing activation.
In a more specific context, marketing activation can aim to exploit a brand event (anniversary), a campaign, a sponsorship agreement, etc.
In the field of marketing activation, we sometimes distinguish:
– brand activation
– digital activation
– store / point of sale activation
Depending on its usage contexts, marketing activation can be close to the concepts of field marketing or operational marketing.
Ambush marketing practices consist for a brand in “parasitizing” an event benefiting from high media exposure, such as a major sporting event, without being an official partner or sponsor. In this case, it is a question of trying to obtain visibility for a brand, a product or a cause without being a sponsor partner of the event.
The most primary form of ambush marketing is probably the practice of the “striker” who crosses naked a sports field during a retransmission with tattooed on the chest the domain name of an online casino site. Ambush marketing operations can however be much more planned and organized and be more rewarding for the brand.
During the Rugby World Cup 2007, Dim dressed cheerleaders in fine lingerie in the Stade de France which attracted the objective of television cameras. Instructions are now given to TV production teams not to broadcast any ambush marketing operations, but these can find a significant response on the Internet and social networks.
Parasitizing a competitor’s or another company’s marketing campaign or event can also be seen as ambush marketing (see examples at the bottom of the page). The geoconquesting practices enabled by geolocation can also be seen as ambush marketing.
The line is obviously blurred between what is ambush marketing and “simple” opportunistic newsjacking practices. However, it seems unreasonable to consider the simple more or less direct mention of the event or sport concerned as ambush marketing practices because the notion of ambush normally implies an action including a certain surprise and a certain aggressiveness.
Apple practices ambush at CES 2019 in Las Vegas, for which it is not an exhibitor with a large format display overlooking the entrance to the event:
The expression of marketing attribution is used more and more to designate the models, procedures and solutions used in the context of conversion attribution issues (purchase, follow-up, lead, etc.). We also talk about attribution management.
Marketing attribution is originally a domain specific to digital marketing and e-commerce, but it is gaining the domain of “offline” with the development of techniques for attributing visits and purchases at points of sale.
Buzz marketing is initially a term designating a set of marketing techniques which aim to use buzz phenomena to promote a product when it is launched.
The appellation of buzz marketing was then extended and generalized to designate all promotional actions for a product or a brand capitalizing on traditional or electronic word of mouth, whether or not the product was in the launching phase.
The term buzz marketing has therefore become synonymous with viral marketing.
Marketing co-creation is a practice by which the consumer is associated with the creation of a product, name, slogan or advertising message.
The co-creation approaches are linked to crowdsourcing techniques or collaborative or participative marketing.
In the product field, the consumer can simply vote for a new color or a new flavor or be more invested in a logic of product co-creation.
The term cloud marketing does not really designate a particular marketing technique, but rather the phenomenon by which, in the context of marketing action, we are using more and more solutions and platforms accessible in SaaS mode. We are talking about solutions hosted in the “cloud”.
There are several hundred, even thousands, of marketing tools and solutions housed in the “cloud” and therefore usable in the context of cloud marketing. They are generally designated under the generic name of martech.
The term trade marketing, used in particular as a positioning tool by the company Criteo since the end of 2017, is defined by the latter as “all of the marketing activities which are measurable up to sales”.
It is not certain that this new appellation goes beyond the provider buzzword and really imposes itself in practices insofar as its outline is relatively vague and where it designates fields or techniques already identified.
In the marketing context, collusion with a brand or brand means a communication practice aimed at establishing a bond or collusion between the brand and its customers or prospects.
A successful collusion in marketing can promote the image, the attachment to the brand and the proximity felt. She is however not free from risks insofar as she often uses humor or the second degree.
This connivance can be practiced in the context of earned or owned media and in particular in communication carried out on social networks which is often carried out in the form of “winks”. Collusion can also be used in advertising.
Data marketing, or data-driven marketing, refers to marketing based on the use of data. It represents an increasingly important part of marketing actions as the marketing digitalization phenomenon progresses.
Data marketing generally includes marketing / CRM uses of data and more advertising uses in display linked to the use of programmatic platforms.
If the concept of data marketing now generally refers to uses related to digital marketing, it should be noted that it already existed in the field of direct marketing with the use of more or less qualified and enriched files.
If data marketing has an indisputable potential for efficiency, it also raises many ethical and legal questions relating to the processing of personal data.
For more details and illustrations relating to data marketing, see data marketing.
Email marketing groups together all the uses of e-mail made for marketing purposes. In numerous studies carried out with marketing managers, email is cited as the lever ensuring the best return on investment.
The main uses of email marketing are uses related to the problems of loyalty / activation of customers and prospects subscribed to a newsletter or who have given their authorization to be contacted. These practices include relational uses and uses more oriented towards transactional, in particular through e-commerce newsletters.
The other parts of email marketing correspond to the uses of email in pure prospecting (which are much rarer and are often confined to acquisition emails paid for by performance), to service emails linked to an order, to processing of incoming emails and sponsorship / advertising practices on newsletters.
Local e-marketing generally refers to all the digital marketing actions undertaken for local marketing purposes.
The main local e-marketing techniques are therefore:
– local natural referencing
– geo located commercial link campaigns
– the use of geo located banners
The term growth marketing, literally meaning “growth marketing”, can be considered a buzzword since the marketing action most often has a growth objective. It is however often used in the context of the activity of start-ups which naturally have an essential growth objective. In this context, it is often seen as a synonym for growth hacking.
Inbound marketing refers to the principle by which a company seeks to have its prospects or customers naturally or spontaneously address it by providing them with useful information or services in the context of a proven or potential need. The principle is generally to rely on the needs of its target in terms of information and content to generate more or less qualified visits and commercial contacts (leads) on a website.
The concept of inbound marketing is mainly used in the B2B context (for more details and illustrations on this subject, see inbound marketing in BtoB), but it can also apply to the field of B2C. In the latter case, the conversion of visits or leads is faster and even often immediate.
Depending on the case and the sector of activity, the content used to capture traffic and attention is useful and practical, even professional, or more “futile”.
This content can take many forms:
– white papers
– case studies
– blog posts
– community content
Internet presence, natural referencing / SEO and lead management are often the key elements of inbound marketing. SEO makes it possible in particular to make the content produced visible and accessible.
Inbound marketing is opposed to push marketing and outbound marketing of “traditional marketing” which aim to “impose” the company and its products through advertising and promotional techniques. The term inbound marketing is generally translated into French by that of “inbound marketing”.
For more details and illustrations on inbound marketing practices, see inbound marketing B2B.
An example of B2C inbound marketing practice practiced by parts sellers using video content marketing and video SEO
B2B marketing for “business to business marketing” brings together all of the marketing techniques used in the context of inter-company trade.
B2B marketing is generally based on the same techniques as B2C marketing, with the necessary adaptations to the specific characteristics of BtoB commerce.
– customers / consumers are businesses
– fewer customers / prospects but the potential unit value is higher
– the search for information can be very thorough and is done mainly on the Internet
– the purchasing and decision cycles can be very long and involve several interlocutors (decision maker, buyer, user, …)
– the perceived risk can be very important for the company and the personal career for heavy investments
– customers / prospects are mobile (internal and external professional mobility)
– buyers are normally more rational and sometimes professional buyers
– payment / billing methods can sometimes be complex
– product prices can be personalized and pre-negotiated according to each customer
– the value of a business client can be very high and represent a large share of turnover.
– in certain areas, the buyer is looking more for a global solution than a product
Among the specifics of B2B marketing, we can notably cite, among others:
– offline advertising communication is mainly done in professional press
– the important role of fairs, shows and other professional events
– the use of automated marketing
– lead management or lead management issues
– the role of content marketing (especially on the Internet)
– special management of large accounts
– the role of interpersonal business relationships
– project detection
The scope and specifics of B2B marketing can be understood by browsing the B2B marketing glossary containing more than 100 specific terms and numerous illustrations.
B2C marketing or “business to consumer” marketing includes all of the marketing actions that target and are aimed at individual consumers.
This is often what is understood in the broad sense by the evocation of the term marketing.
B2C marketing is therefore made up of the most visible and best known techniques, actions and marketing campaigns identified by the general public.
B2C marketing is different from B2B marketing, which is less visible and less known, and this despite being the basis of the vast majority of commercial exchanges.
To go further, see B2B marketing.